Journal of Shinawatra University, Vol.3, No.2 (May-August, 2016).

Download the full version of the journal JSIU 3.2.

Journal of Shinawatra University

Volume 3, Number 2, May-Aug, 2016

Table of Contents

Editor’s Introduction                                             3

Peer Reviewed Papers

The Sino-Thai Relationship in the Context of Various Perspectives of International Relations – Sirirat Ngamsang                           5

A Study of Marketing Issues in Social Welfare and Planning for Rural Development Society – Surabhi Singh                               18

Paw San Rice Marketing in Shwe Bo – Khin Kyi Zin                   29

Book Reviews

Future Cities by Camilla Ween – John Walsh                         52

SEA Is Ours by Jaymee Goh and Joyce Chng, eds. – John Walsh         54

The Food Wars by Walden Bello – John Walsh                        56

General Editorial Policies                                       59

Yes, I know it is 2017 now – the circumstances are beyond my control.



The 9th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Global Business Environment

The 9th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Global Business Environment were held concurrently at Shinawatra University, Bangkok, Thailand on 23rd July, 2016 at the graduate campus at the BBD Building on Viphawadi-Rangsit Road. The event was successful and better attended than most previous conferences SIU has hosted. Nearly 50 academic papers were scheduled for presentation.

Keynote speakers Hon. Prof. Dr. Charnvit Kotheeranurak and Dr. Somprasong Boonyachai (all photos by the author)

Two excellent keynote speeches helped to set the tone for the day. Hon. Prof. Dr. Charnvit Kotheeranurak spoke on the subject of Medicine 4.0, taking the theme of a new generation of medical treatments and conditions applying to the contemporary world and drew implications from that. Subsequently, Dr. Somprasong Boonyachai spoke on the subject of the digital economy, which is a subject on which he could speak authoritatively, given his extensive experience with AIS and now InTouch Holdings. The audience warmly appreciated both speakers. Ajarn Chanchai Bunchapattanasakda graciously agreed to open proceedings.
The remainder of the day was occupied by the technical sessions, in which academics from a number of different countries presented their research with the audience. Speakers represented, in addition to Thailand, Nepal, Myanmar, South Africa, Ghana, Germany, the UK and Indonesia, among others.

Dr. Petcharat Lovichakorntikul and Dr. Sirirat Ngamsang help to fly the flag for SIU.

Three of our SIU students from Myanmar were able to attend, two of whom – Ms Khin Kyin Zin and Daw Sandi Win – were presenting academic work for the first time, which is always a somewhat daunting task.


Ms Khin Kyin Zin, Mr. Soe Myint Than and Daw Sandi Win presented their research conducted at the Mandalay campus of SIU.

The range of topics presented was wide, ranging from work-like balance among women in positions of management to healthcare company development, communication, business ethics, stock market analysis and marketing. As ever, we endeavoured to maintain a harmonious, friendly atmosphere in which academics and students could exchange knowledge and ideas and learn about one another’s work.

I am grateful to all those who attended, including Dr. Ijaz who was representing our partner the International Foundation for Research and Development ( and our own conference team, led by Aj Ratana Palasak and Dr. Wilaiporn Lao-Hakosol. As usual, staunch support was received from the library team, especially Aj. Boonta Wisswaapaisal and K Suntirach Lerdmanee. Thanks are also due to the IT and domestic teams.

John Walsh, Shinawatra University

Conference Report: 5th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Economics and Social Sciences

5th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Economics and Social Sciences

Shinawatra University, BBD Building, 197, Viphawadi-Rangsit Road, Bangkok, June 6th, 2015

The occasion of the 5th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Economics and Social Sciences, held at the Graduate Campus of Shinawatra University in Bangkok on June 6th, 2015, marked the continued partnership between the University and the International Foundation for Research and Development ( Other partners include the Yildirim Beyazit Universiti of Turkey, Pertre Anderi of IASI, Romania, Durban University of Technology, South Africa and NAM, Ukraine.

The conference was held on the fourth floor of the graduate campus, as a number of other international conferences have also been held. This was a well-attended event with representatives from universities in Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Oman, South Africa and the USA.

The keynote speech was given by Dr. Herman Gruenwald, from Burapha University, Chonburi, who spoke on the subject of entrepreneurship and how to encourage it. Subsequent speakers considered a wide range of topics. Some of the highlights included Abdalla M Omezzine (University of Nizwa) on “Supply Chain Management and Rejuvenation of Value Addition: the Case of Date Palm in the MENA Region,” Nsizwazikhona Chili Simon (Durban University of Technology) on “Township Tourism: The Politics and Socio-Economic Dynamics of Tourism in the South African Township: Umlazi, Durban” and Suthathip Yaisawarng (Union College, NY) on “Financial and Social Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions.”


Figure 1: Audience Members Listen to a Presentation; source: Editor

Shinawatra University was again well-supported by the School of Liberal Arts, led by professors Kantatip Sinhaneti and Amporn Sai-Ngiamvibool and their students, together with faculty members Steve McKee, Catherine Owens and Robert Burgess. Within the School of Management, papers were given (with my co-authorship) by a number of faculty members, doctoral candidates and MBA students.

Ajarn Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta spoke on the subject of “Breaking Gender Stereotypes in Asia: Human Resource Development Challenges for Thailand’s Police Force.” Dr. Wilaiporn Lao-Hakosol gave a presentation on “Sustainable Growth Strategies for 999 Company in the Era of the ASEAN Economic Community: Medical Equipment and Supplies Trading in Thailand during Changing Environmental Conditions.”


Figure 2: Dr. Wilaiporn Lao-Hakosol Gives Her Presentation; source: Editor

Dr. Fuangfa Ampornstira presented “Possible Impacts of the Sino-Thai Kra Isthmus.” Mr. Eric Bediako spoke on the subject of “Accountancy and Sustainable Economic Development: A Case Study of Thailand.” Mr. Ashraful Siddique gave his presentation on “A Qualitative Analysis of Current Unrest in the Ready Made Garment Sector Concerning Labour Practices in Bangladesh.” Ms. Ingyin Khaing Tin presented her research on “Work Life Balance of Women in Mandalay, Myanmar.” Phramaha Min Putthithanasombat spoke on the subject of “Monk Travellers: Spreading the Opportunity to Do Good under Theravadin Buddhism.” Finally, Ms. Sirirat Ngamsang presented “The Sino-Thai Relationship in the Context of Various Perspectives of International Relations.”

Conferences such as this provide excellent opportunities for faculty members and students to network with each other, to listen to the research that colleagues are doing and to interact with those speakers, as well as having the chance to benchmark the level of their own work with that of others. I encourage my students to present at conferences and submit papers to journals as much as they can, in part because that is a graduation requirement but, also, because it enhances the educational experience and their personal level of confidence. I hope to continue to help organize more conferences here at Shinawatra University for these reasons and also to help propagate the idea of research-based discourse and policy formation.

The Sino-Thai Relationship in the Context of Various Perspectives of International Relations

This is the fourth abstract from the forthcoming IFRD Conference, this one co-authored with Sirirat Ngamsang:

The Sino-Thai Relationship in the Context of Various Perspectives of International Relations


China and Thailand have had a long and mostly fruitful relationship which might be entering into a new phase in the near future. The relationship has many elements to it, including the personal, the military, economic, political and diplomatic. To be able to understand and characterize this relationship, it is necessary to view it in a framework that takes account of the different elements involved. Within international relations, the evolution of thought away from the basic realist framework towards more complex understandings of the nature of relationships between states that has made that perspective more possible. This paper explores the changing nature of international relations and shows the ways in which this has developed in the light of the Sino-Thai relationship. It is argued that neither realism, neo-realism nor liberalism is sufficient to explain the relationship considered and that it is important to include not just non-state actors but social and class relations in the analysis, in the way that an approach such as neo-Gramscianism can provide.

Keywords: China; liberalism; neo-Gramscian analysis; realism; Thailand

Sirirat Ngamsang, School of Management, Shinawatra University

John Walsh, School of Management, Shinawatra University

Fostering Ties through Trains and Tracks: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis of Chinese-Thai Relations


Ngamsang, Sirirat and John Walsh, “Fostering Ties through Trains and Tracks: A Neo-Gramscian Analysis of Chinese-Thai Relations,” paper to be presented at the International Conference on Commerce, Financial Markets and Corporate Governance/2nd International Conference on Research Methods in Management and Social Sciences (Shinawatra University, Thailand: February 7th, 2015).


The relationship between China and Thailand has been a long and complex one and featured interactions on many different levels. Currently, ties at the state level are being intensified by the contracts signed to bring about Chinese-built infrastructure in Thailand, particularly in the case of the dual track railway line. One approach to understanding international relations is the neo-Gramscian approach, which focuses on the concept of hegemony within society and how it might be constructed on a world stage. Neo-Gramscian approaches are diverse in nature and cover the social relations of production, forms of state and world orders. This paper outlines the historical context of Sino-Thai relations and how they have developed into the contemporary experience from a neo-Gramscian perspective as a means not just of understanding the world but predicting how it is likely to change in the future. The focus is on infrastructure as an enabling technology that is available to a wide range of people and helps to link all places of production and consumption. As such, it both broadens and deepens connectivity between and within the countries concerned with many results.

Keywords: China, infrastructure, neo-Gramscian analysis, Thailand, transportation

IFRD 2014 at SIU

The IFRD Conference held at the BBD Building, Shinawatra University, has now been held successfully. Below are the abstracts and photos of the papers with which I was associated.

Here, to begin with, is Dr. Cornelis Reiman, who delivered the keynote speech.


His speech had the title ‘A Tale of Two Cities.’ In lieu of an abstract (which is not needed for a keynote speech), here are the opening paragraphs:

commerce.  My father was an accountant and I had jobs after school since the age of ten that continued until I was twenty years old.  This had taught me about the value of effort, and of money.  Then, when at university, I studied economics and accounting.  Later, I worked with Arthur Andresen& Co as a corporate auditor of a variety of clients, in terms of size and industry type, in all components of their business.  Next, I was with IBM, where I held technical, sales, marketing, management and executive positions.


I also worked as a high-level management consultant.  In doing so, I provided a wide range of private clients with strategic and operational advice in accounting, finance, board reporting, organisational and business development, as well as marketing and computing.  The common factor was the need for chief executives, and boards, to find a quick and practical answer to a pressing business issue.  Clients included the chartered accounting firm of Touche Ross & Co., Greenpeace, The Wilderness Society, as well as Federal Government agencies in Australia and commercial businesses.  During this time, by chance, I became State President of the Economic Society of Australia and that was when I entered the city of academia.  I was asked to teach at the University Adelaide, and as I travelled the streets of this new city, I also lectured at Monash University.  There, I focussed on postgraduate international economics, business and management subjects.  After that, I was fortunate to work in pivotal, executive roles at two universities.  One was Shinawatra International University in Thailand, being traditional, with face-to-face teaching, and the other was Universitas 21 Global in Singapore, a premium business school that was entirely online.



The first day was Saturday, June 14th and the first of our papers was delivered by Nancy Huyen Nguyen, who discussed “Thai Workforce- Ready for ASEAN Economic Community 2015?”


ASEAN countries are moving briskly towards the launch of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. Together with monetary and technological resources, human resources are also vital for ASEAN countries stay competitive in the single market of AEC. Taking the case of Thailand, this paper evaluates the readiness of the Thai workforce in preparing for the integration.  It brings to light several fundamental issues of the Thai workforce: (1) the quality of labor in Thailand remains moderate; (2) productivity continues to stay behind other ASEAN countries such as Singapore. The failure of the Thai educational system and the workforce skill mismatch are primary attributes to the workforce’s relatively low skill levels and productivity. Based on the empirical analysis, the paper suggests renewing the role of the Thai government in restructuring the national education system as well as cooperating workforce skill planning into the master development plan.

Keywords       workforce, labor, workers, Thailand, ASEAN, ASEAN Economic Community


Next up was Sirirat Ngamsang, who spoke on the subject “China, USA and Thailand: The Impact of International Relationships on a Modern Economy.”


The relationship between China and the USA is becoming one of the most important relationships in the system of international relations and helps define the ways in which international trade and investment take place. Although the two countries are not open rivals as was the case with the USA and Soviet Union during the Cold War, they do have differing visions for the future, which might be summarized as the difference between the Washington Consensus and the Beijing Consensus. This form of competition may be seen in third party countries, where American and Chinese corporations vie for market access and scarce resources. In the case of Thailand, China has historically been of great importance as a powerful neighbour and because so many ethnic Chinese have migrated to Thailand and infused Thai society with a powerful Chinese element. China’s corporations are coming increasingly important in the economy and may be replacing the American influence which increased in importance during the Second Indochinese War. Will, as some fear, the increasing Chinese economic influence also have a political influence that will be contrary to the wishes of the Thai people for greater freedom of expression and desire for creativity? This paper investigates the changing role of China in the Thai economy in the context of historical factors and international relations and draws conclusions from this analysis.

Keywords: Beijing Consensus, China, international relations, Thailand, USA, Washington Consensus

IMG_1179Moving to the second day, Sunday June 15th, the first speaker was Prapti Proudyal, who spoke on the subject “Job Satisfaction among Doctors Working in Hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal.”


Increasing emphasis is being laid by organizations on the psychosocial wellbeing of staff to enhance efficiency of operations. Job satisfaction results from a pleasurable or positive emotional state arising from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences and it is a central part of psychosocial wellbeing. This is particularly true for medical doctors, who are vital providers of medical services in the community. For a high level of healthcare to be delivered, those responsible should be experiencing good job satisfaction since the interpersonal relationships involved are so important. This study explores the job satisfaction of medical doctors working in hospitals in the public and private sector in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Since this research is exploratory in nature, a qualitative approach was adopted and involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. A purposive sampling method was adopted so as to include doctors in a diverse range of specialisations, years of experience and position within the hospital. It was found that the primary source of satisfaction for all doctors is appreciation from patients and community as a whole. They are also satisfied that they are doing something noble for humanity. Dissatisfaction was overwhelmingly financial, relationship with administration and workload in the absence of supervision. Senior doctors seem to be very satisfied with all aspects of the job. Dissatisfaction is mainly found in residents and medical officers. However, none of the doctors showed even a hint that they considered quitting the medical profession completely.

Keywords: hospital, job satisfaction, Kathmandu, psychosocial wellbeing



Next up was MBA student Aye Aye Htun, who spoke on the subject “A Study of the Business Network Internationalization Process Model in Myanmar: Literature Review.”

Abstract: The business network internationalization process model is a development of the interaction and network approach that emerged from the Uppsala school in the late 1970s and which helped revolutionize the understanding of marketing. Until the network approach, marketing decisions were assumed to be based on the rationality of microeconomics, perhaps supplemented by the addition of transaction cost analysis. Since then, the role of inter-personal and inter-organizational relationships has been incorporated into frameworks and this has permitted the creation of much more sophisticated and meaningful models of the relationships within networks of market actors. However, this approach was developed in the context of advanced western European economies and the firms who prosper within them. It is far from certain that it will be suitable for application in an emerging economy such as that of Myanmar, where there is a significant lack not just of physical infrastructure and connectivity but also a legal system to support commercial activities and relevant support services such as translation and legal advice, marketing, advertising, design and packaging services. This paper consists of a literature review that has been prepared for a research project to investigate the issues outlined above.


Then we had Reema Thakur, who spoke on the subject “Changing Work and Life Aspirations among Nepalese Women: A Hofstedian Approach.”


Nepal is a developing country in which women continue to face discrimination on a number of fronts. This includes unequal treatment with respect to access to food, healthcare, education, employment, control of the means of production and decision-making ability. The majority of Nepalese people still hold misconceptions about the potential that women have in the economic, political and social spheres, as exemplified by the commonly used proverb that a son brightens the world, while a daughter brightens the kitchen. However, societies change as a result of the processes of globalization and the intensification of capitalism and Nepal is no exception to this. Women have new aspirations and expectations of their work and their personal lives as opportunities emerge and social relations may be renegotiated. This paper reports on personal interviews with a sample of Nepalese women in a diverse range of personal circumstances. To provide a framework of analysis for the interviews, the Hofstedian approach to the exploration of cultures has been employed. By examining the findings against the background of the dimensions of masculinity, power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance and long-term commitment, it is possible to discern the causes and effects of change in Nepalese society and, in particular, gender relations.

Keywords: gender relations, globalization, Hofstede, Nepal

I also delivered some papers myself, two on behalf of presenters who were unable to attend and one on my own behalf.

Deep-Fried Locusts and Stinky Tofu: Performing and Consuming Street Food in Thailand and Taiwan

Abstract: One of the principal attractions for tourists to East Asian cities is the colourful and exotic street food to be found, often in profusion. Some examples of these common snacks have become internationalized and recreated in the upmarket restaurants of the world. Others, however, remain stubbornly unloved by anyone apart from their long-term and traditional adherents. In recent years, street food has been transformed by the spread of fast-food outlets that seem to have opened in nearly every street of every large city of the region. Western foods, powerfully marketed and configured to be addictive in taste and increasingly available through convenience store chains, represent a significant threat to street food providers. In response, providers have sought to introduce new varieties in their product offerings and, in some cases, injected new theatrical elements into their performances of production and consumption. This paper introduces case studies of different locations in Thailand and Taiwan that are known for their street food and examines them in terms of which larger societal and economic changes are reflected at the level of the streets and draws conclusions from those studies.

Key words (3-5 words): street food, performance, consumption, Taiwan, Thailand

Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta and John Walsh

Eco Industrial Estates in Thailand in International Comparative Perspective

Abstract: Eco-industrial estates are geographical territories bounded in time and space in which variations of the national legal system exist so as to promote investment in manufacturing facilities while also considering the possibility of negative environmental externalities. An eco-industrial estate aspires to be sustainable – that is, maximizing current production without sacrificing future prospects. However, there are many steps to be taken before it is possible to move from industrial estates today to those of the future where that sustainability can actually be achieved, no matter how attractive that prospect might appear. This paper examines the moves towards building genuine eco-industrial estates in Thailand and compares this situation with similar attempts that have been made elsewhere in the world. A model is proposed to act as a framework for analysis in this context and that model is then tested by using the data currently available. Conclusions and recommendations are drawn from this analysis.

Keywords: eco-industrial estates, sustainability, Thailand

Supaporn Pinyochatchinda and John Walsh

Cross-Border Connectivities Linking Thailand and Cambodia


The Asian Development Bank has identified connectivity as one of the principal means of promoting economic development in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Connectivity is usually defined in terms of physical infrastructure, in part because this is comparatively easy to quantify and, hence, measure progress. However, connectivity also includes a number of other dimensions, relating to soft infrastructure, inter- and intra-organizational links, virtual connections, personal connections and others. Each of these forms of connectivity produces both positive and negative externalities in the places where they are conducted and further afield. This is evident in the case of Thailand and Cambodia, where the border region has provided opportunities for international cooperation in terms of agricultural production, increased the demand for land and changed the nature of housing and retailing and, also, acted as a destination for migrant workers. Every border region, in the GMS and elsewhere, has different forms of development as a result of geographical, historical, cultural and economic factors and these all have impacts on the type of connectivity that is possible and that which is favoured as a result. This paper explores the different parts of the Thai-Cambodian border with a view to examining the various types of connectivity that might be found there and, from a principally economic perspective, evaluates their nature and importance. Despite political difficulties and the persistent problem of extreme nationalism, it is evident that economic value has been added, particularly around areas such as Aranyaprathet and Sa Kaeo province in general, where development and change have been rapid. The siting of carefully-planned special economic zones in this region might help to improve the current conditions, as well as increasing connectivity and this possibility is also explored with respect to the industrial policies being pursued in both Thailand and Cambodia.

John Walsh



Academic Papers Published in 2013

It looks like the last of my 2013 academic papers has been published, so the full list as it stands is (in alphabetical order of authors):

Apivantanaporn, Thanan and John Walsh, “The Experience Economy in Thai Hotels and Resort Clusters: The Role of Authentic Food,” Acta Universitatus Danubius Oeconomica, Vol.9, No.3 (June, 2013), pp.140-52, available at:

Chintraruck, Alin and John Walsh, “Contemporary Water Management Issues in Thailand in Comparative Perspective,” Journal of Social and Development Sciences, Vol.4, No.5 (May, 2013), pp.218-28, available at:

Chintraruck, Alin and John Walsh, “Water Resource Allocation Issues in Thailand,” International Postgraduate Business Journal, Vol.5, No.1 (2013), pp.31-47, available at:

Ngamsang, Sirirat and John Walsh, “Confucius Institutes as Instruments of Soft Power: Comparison with International Rivals,” Journal of Educational and Vocational Research, Vol.4, No.10 (October, 2013), pp.302-10, available at:

Putthithanasombat, Phramaha Min and John Walsh, “Management of Foreign Teachers in International Educational Institutes in Thailand,” Journal of Education and Vocational Research, Vol.4, No.8 (August, 2013), pp.230-7, available at:

Southiseng, Nittana and John Walsh, “Human Resource Management in the Telecommunications Sector of Laos,” International Journal of Research Studies in Management, Vol.2, No.2 (2013), doi: 10.5861/ijrsm.2013.235, available at:

Sujarittanonta, Lavanchawee and John Walsh, “Game-Playing Culture in an Age of Capitalist Consumption: Young Taiwanese and Collectible Card Games,” Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, Vol.5, No.11 (November, 2013), pp.792-7, available at:

Thakur, Reema and John Walsh, “Characteristics of Thai Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of SMEs Operating in Lampang Municipality Area,” Journal of Social and Development Studies, Vol.4, No.4 (April, 2013), pp.174-81, available at:

Walsh, John and Fuengfa Amponsitra, “Infrastructure Development and the Repositioning of Power in Three Mekong Region Capital Cities,” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, early view, 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2013.01212.x, available at:

Walsh, John, “Environmental Changes in the Mekong Region and the Impact on Female Entrepreneurs,” Pacific Business Review: A Quarterly Journal of Management (February, 2013), available at:

Walsh, John, “Fernando Enterprises: The Marketization of a Hobby,” South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases, Vol.2, No.2 (December, 2013), pp.125-32.

Walsh, John, “Social Policy and Special Economic Zones in the Greater Mekong Subregion,” International Journal of Social Quality, Vol.3, No.1 (Summer, 2013), pp.44-56, Abstract available at:

Walsh, John, “Thailand and the East Asian Economic Model,” Pacific Business Review: A Quarterly Journal of Management, Vol.5, No.10 (April, 2013), pp.81-8, available at:

Walsh, John, “The Role of Clinical Governance and in the Health Management Systems of Thailand,” Journal of Social and Development Sciences, Vol.4, No.10 (October, 2013), pp.461-6, available at:

Yin, Lay Su and John Walsh, “Performance Assessment in the International Hotel Sector of Yangon, Myanmar,” Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, Vol.5, No.5 (May, 2013), pp.282-90, available at: