Collaborative Provision of Graduate Education in CLMV: Case of Thailand’s Private Universities


Announcing: Sujarittanonta, Lavanchawee, kittichok Nithisathian and John Walsh, “Collaborative Provision of Graduate Education in CLMV: Case of Thailand’s Private Universities,” Journal of Educational and Vocational Research, Vol.7, No.2 (2016), pp.49-57, available at:


Education entails investments in time and money from the students and, therefore, the choices of degree programs and university names are critical for students and their future careers. The demand for foreign education in the CLMV (i.e. Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam) market is fast expanding, especially for international graduate programs. Equipped with foreign degrees, the human resources of the host CLMV countries are ready for international jobs with international standards. This situation attracts investments by foreign universities to enter CLMV countries to offer degree programs, such as MBA, MPA and PhD. While Western universities are internationally recognized, the success of Asian universities operating within CLMV has not been studied. Consequently, this paper reports on research examining the success of Thai private universities that operate in CLMV countries, in particular Mynmar, which has only recently opened up to the world, as well as the developing prospects for Vietnam. Lao PDR and Cambodia. Data is collected through in-depth interviews of managers and students of international partner institutions of the host countries, through which Thai universities offer graduate degree programs. It is found that private Thai degree programs are welcomed in CLMV countries, while Thai degrees are favored over international Western degrees in terms of economic affordability and preferred over Chinese degree programs due to the socio-cultural perception that Chinese products are doubtful in quality. This is not surprising, considering that a 2014 study by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) reported that among middle-income countries of Asia, Thailand and Malaysia lead the region when it comes to providing graduate education.
Keywords: Education, CLMV, private universities, quality


Nepalese Journal of Management Science and Research, Vol.1, No.1 (2016)


I now have the hard copy issue of the Nepalese Journal of Management Science and Research, Vol.1, No.1 (January-June, 2016), of which I am Chief Editor.

Here is the final able of contents:

Editorial                                                                                                             v

Executive Summary                                                                                      vi

Editor’s Introduction                                                                                   vii

Original Peer Reviewed Papers

High Performance Work Practices Facilitating Employee Engagement: A Study of PSUs in Delhi NCR – Pooja Misra and Jaya Gupta                                         1

Determinants of the Mobile Handset Purchase Decision of the Youth in NCR India – Archana Singh and Ritu Srivastava                                                       16

Factors Affecting Retailer Perceptions for the Sale of Snacking Products through Traditional Trade Retail Outlets in India – Gagan Katiyar            22

Space and Workplace Issues for Nepalese Female Entrepreneurs, Street Vendors and Employees – Reema Thakur                                                                   33

Identity and Integration in the Asia-Pacific Region through the Prism of Tourism: Taiwan and Japan – Lin Fan, Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta and Arunee Lertkornkitja                                                                                                                              44

Foreign Direct Investment in Cambodia’s Telecommunications Industry – Fuangfa Ampornstira                                                                                             55

Book Reviews

Going Universal: How 24 Developing Countries Are Implementing Universal Health Coverage Reforms from the Bottom up – Cotlear, Daniel, Somil Nagpal, Owen Smith, Ajay Tandon and Rafael Cortez by John Walsh                            65

Capitalism: A Ghost Story – Roy, Arundhati by John Walsh   67

Editorial Policies and Guidelines                                                     68



Nepalese Journal of Management Science and Research, Vol.1, No.1 (February, 2016)


Volume 1, Number 1 of the Nepalese Journal of Management Science and Research will be published in February, 2016 by Global College International, Kathmandu and the SIU Research Centre in Thailand, with myself as chief editor. ISSN: 2467-9356.

This is the table of contents of the first issue:

Foreword and Executive Producer by Prof. Dr. Karan Singh Thagunna  p.iii

Editor’s Introducion by John Walsh p.v

Original Articles

High Performance Work Practices Facilitating Employee Engagement: A Study of PSUs in Delhi NCR – Pooja Misra and Jaya Gupta pp.1 – 15
Determinants of the Mobile Handset Purchase Decision of the
Youth in NCR- India – Archana Singh and Ritu Srivastava pp.16 – 21
Factors Affecting Retailer Perceptions for the Sale of Snacking
Products through Traditional Trade Retail Outlets in India – Gagan Katiyar pp.22 – 32
Space and Workplace Issues for Nepalese Female Entrepreneurs,
Street Vendors and Employees – Reema Thakur pp.33 – 43
Identity and Integration in the Asia-Pacific Region through the
Prism of Tourism: Taiwan & Japan – Lin Fan, Lavanchawee
Sujarittanonta and Arunee Lertkornkitja pp.44 – 54
Foreign Direct Investment in Cambodia’s Telecommunications
Industry – Fuangfa Ampornstira pp.55 – 64

Book Reviews
Going Universal: How 24 Developing Countries Are Implementing
Universal Health Coverage Reforms from the Bottom up – Cotlear, Daniel, Somil Nagpal, Owen Smith, Ajay Tandon and Rafael Cortez by John Walsh pp.65 – 66
Capitalism: A Ghost Story – Roy, Arundhati by John Walsh pp.67 – 68

Guidelines for Authors pp.69-70.

Please consider the double-blind peer-reviewed hard copy journal the Nepalese Journal of Management Science and Research as a venue for your research paper. Submit to or directly to the editor (

International Police Executives Symposium, 2015


I have returned now from the International Police Executives Symposium (IPES), held at the Ravindra Resort in Pattaya, which we were involved in hosting. It was the 26th meeting of the conference and it seemed to go smoothly and delegates all seemed to be satisfied.


The Royal Thai Police Band was part of the official delegation from the Royal Thai Police, including VIP guests and keynote speakers.

We offered five presentations from Shinawatra University, which were as follows:

An Analysis of the Language Abilities and Needs of the Thai Tourism Police Force

Tourism is one of Thailand’s most important industries and many millions of visitors arrive each year. Inevitably, a proportion of those visitors will require interactions with the police for one reason or another and a designated Thai tourism police force has been established. In order for successful interaction to take place, communication must be possible and this requires the police officers to have some language skills, since few visitors speak Thai well. However, the Thai educational system is known to be very poor in providing language skills among the young people of the country and so additional training is required for the necessary level to be achieved. This paper reports on quantitative research that explores the needs for language skills among the Thai tourist police and the current level of ability. The gap between the two is identified and suggestions made as to how it can be filled.

Keywords: communication, language ability, language needs, police, Thailand

John Walsh and Wilaiporn Lao-Hakosol, Shinawatra University, Thailand

Gender Relations and Issues in the Thai Police Force

Women are increasingly important members of police forces around the world. Their role is increasingly valued for the provision of emotional labour and because they are less likely to overstep the limits of what is permitted in conflict situations. Yet female police officers remain comparatively low in numbers, in Thailand as well as elsewhere, and face the career constraints of being restricted to a relatively limited rage of specialty positions and departments. This paper reports on a programme of qualitative research with female police officers in various elements of the Thai police force and describes the issues and problems that they face with respect to career progression, work-life balance, gender relations in the workplace and their relationship with the general public. The findings are set in the context of the perceptions of women from other police forces around the world and in other organizations.

Keywords: gender relations, Thailand, women, work-life balance, workplace relations

Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta and John Walsh, Shinawatra University, Thailand

An Assessment of the IT Capabilities of the Thai Police Force

Police work increasingly relies on adequate IT capabilities in terms of investigation, communication, workplace practices and all aspects of organization of information. The increasing need for transparency and accountability in policing is being met by the routinization of the use of IT equipment in the pursuit of duties. Officers also need to be aware of the ways in which people produce and consume media and social media so as to understand the ways in which people communicate with each other, the interaction between such communications and changing legal requirements and the extent to which it is possible and legal to monitor interpersonal communications and those communications which are published on the internet. Developing these capabilities, in terms of technical skills, awareness of the legal framework and the possession of the necessary equipment and its maintenance, is a complex and expensive task and, thus, poses a challenge to public sector organizations during a period of global economic crisis and fierce competition for scarce resources. This paper uses secondary data to identify the nature of IT requirements in contemporary police forces and uses this to estimate the needs within the Thai police force. Primary research is then used to compare the actual availability of these resources and then priorities are suggested for addressing the gaps thereby identified.

Keywords: information technology, social media, Thailand,

Chanya Pokasoowan, Tuaranin Khamrin and John Walsh, Shinawatra University, Thailand

Police Job Profiles and the Police Reform Process

When considering the issue of the reforms necessary to (re)create a police force suitable for the contemporary world, the issue of job profiles or job specifications is a central issue. A job profile is the combination of relevant skills, knowledge, activities and behaviours that a police officer is required to have to fulfill that officer’s duties. Clearly, such a profile will evolve over the course of time, vary according to the specialty involved and need to reflect location-specific conditions. Numerous attempts have been made to define appropriate models for creating profiles, while much effort has been expended on trying to identify the most suitable collection of abilities and competencies required for specific police services. This paper surveys the literature in this regard with a view to identifying salient features for a range of job profiles to be used in the context of Thailand in the current social and technological environment. To do so, it is necessary to provide an analysis of the relevant characteristics of Thai society at the current time and this is also provided. Finally, the paper considers the differences between the ways in which job profiles are currently developed and what the review of the literature and relation with the local environment indicates would be appropriate.

Keywords: job profiles, police, police reform, technology, Thailand

Voradej Chandarasorn and John Walsh, Shinawatra University, Thailand

Police Wages and Workplace Conditions in Southeast Asia

Wages and workplace conditions are important considerations when it comes to attracting high quality personnel into a particular industry. According to the literature, provision of a suitably high level of compensation also has implications for the integrity of individuals. As policing becomes more complex, with greater need for use and understanding of information technology, transnational crime and the greater flows that will be possible under the ASEAN Economic Community, it will be increasingly important to attract and retain highly talented individuals. One of the first steps to understanding the relative attractiveness of police work as a career is to compare wages and workplace conditions not only with other professions in the country but also with the situations in neighbouring countries, since it is evident that there is a positive correlation between salary and the perception of the status inherent within a career. Consequently, this paper examines the various compensation packages available to police officers across a range of ranks and with a variety of job profiles across the Southeast Asian region of ten nations. This analysis is then linked with the perception of police officers in the different states concerned and some implications are drawn from the analysis and recommendations provided.

Keywords: police, Southeast Asia, status, wages

Chanchai Bunchapattanasakda and John Walsh, Shinawatra University, Thailand

Some of the papers actually varied from these published abstracts as my ability to find relevant information meant other subjects became more practicable.

Conference Report: 5th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Economics and Social Sciences

5th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Economics and Social Sciences

Shinawatra University, BBD Building, 197, Viphawadi-Rangsit Road, Bangkok, June 6th, 2015

The occasion of the 5th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Economics and Social Sciences, held at the Graduate Campus of Shinawatra University in Bangkok on June 6th, 2015, marked the continued partnership between the University and the International Foundation for Research and Development ( Other partners include the Yildirim Beyazit Universiti of Turkey, Pertre Anderi of IASI, Romania, Durban University of Technology, South Africa and NAM, Ukraine.

The conference was held on the fourth floor of the graduate campus, as a number of other international conferences have also been held. This was a well-attended event with representatives from universities in Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Oman, South Africa and the USA.

The keynote speech was given by Dr. Herman Gruenwald, from Burapha University, Chonburi, who spoke on the subject of entrepreneurship and how to encourage it. Subsequent speakers considered a wide range of topics. Some of the highlights included Abdalla M Omezzine (University of Nizwa) on “Supply Chain Management and Rejuvenation of Value Addition: the Case of Date Palm in the MENA Region,” Nsizwazikhona Chili Simon (Durban University of Technology) on “Township Tourism: The Politics and Socio-Economic Dynamics of Tourism in the South African Township: Umlazi, Durban” and Suthathip Yaisawarng (Union College, NY) on “Financial and Social Efficiency of Microfinance Institutions.”


Figure 1: Audience Members Listen to a Presentation; source: Editor

Shinawatra University was again well-supported by the School of Liberal Arts, led by professors Kantatip Sinhaneti and Amporn Sai-Ngiamvibool and their students, together with faculty members Steve McKee, Catherine Owens and Robert Burgess. Within the School of Management, papers were given (with my co-authorship) by a number of faculty members, doctoral candidates and MBA students.

Ajarn Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta spoke on the subject of “Breaking Gender Stereotypes in Asia: Human Resource Development Challenges for Thailand’s Police Force.” Dr. Wilaiporn Lao-Hakosol gave a presentation on “Sustainable Growth Strategies for 999 Company in the Era of the ASEAN Economic Community: Medical Equipment and Supplies Trading in Thailand during Changing Environmental Conditions.”


Figure 2: Dr. Wilaiporn Lao-Hakosol Gives Her Presentation; source: Editor

Dr. Fuangfa Ampornstira presented “Possible Impacts of the Sino-Thai Kra Isthmus.” Mr. Eric Bediako spoke on the subject of “Accountancy and Sustainable Economic Development: A Case Study of Thailand.” Mr. Ashraful Siddique gave his presentation on “A Qualitative Analysis of Current Unrest in the Ready Made Garment Sector Concerning Labour Practices in Bangladesh.” Ms. Ingyin Khaing Tin presented her research on “Work Life Balance of Women in Mandalay, Myanmar.” Phramaha Min Putthithanasombat spoke on the subject of “Monk Travellers: Spreading the Opportunity to Do Good under Theravadin Buddhism.” Finally, Ms. Sirirat Ngamsang presented “The Sino-Thai Relationship in the Context of Various Perspectives of International Relations.”

Conferences such as this provide excellent opportunities for faculty members and students to network with each other, to listen to the research that colleagues are doing and to interact with those speakers, as well as having the chance to benchmark the level of their own work with that of others. I encourage my students to present at conferences and submit papers to journals as much as they can, in part because that is a graduation requirement but, also, because it enhances the educational experience and their personal level of confidence. I hope to continue to help organize more conferences here at Shinawatra University for these reasons and also to help propagate the idea of research-based discourse and policy formation.

Provincial Patronage Networks and Small Business in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS): Implications for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015


Announcing: Sujarittanonta, Lavanchawee and John Walsh, “Provincial Patronage Networks and Small Business in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS): Implications for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015,” Information Management and Business Review, Vol.6, No.6 (December, 2014), pp.286-300, available at:


In East Asian cultures such as Thailand, existing patronage in local political and administrative structures can limit the ability of the state to affect its policies. Consequently, this research examines the extent to which these “guanxi” networks affect provincial small businesses, which lack the resources to persuade local provincial patronage providers to advantage them. This has implications for the ASEAN Economic Community, when cross-border economic activity is expected to increase, especially in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). Thailand is chosen for this study because of its long history of strong power patronage systems at the provincial level and for its regional economic prominence and rich cross-border trade activities with neighboring countries such as Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Malaysia in the GMS. Findings from interview-based data collected from 178 small firm respondents from 31 provinces suggest that “friends and family guanxi” networks matter most for provincial small businesses. While there is an ongoing relationship between political officers and top managers of buyer (not supplier) firms, these are likely to be large firms, not small firms. Consequently, it is likely that small provincial firms, whether Thai or from neighboring countries, will not need to foster connections with local politicians and government officials.

IFRD 2014 at SIU

The IFRD Conference held at the BBD Building, Shinawatra University, has now been held successfully. Below are the abstracts and photos of the papers with which I was associated.

Here, to begin with, is Dr. Cornelis Reiman, who delivered the keynote speech.


His speech had the title ‘A Tale of Two Cities.’ In lieu of an abstract (which is not needed for a keynote speech), here are the opening paragraphs:

commerce.  My father was an accountant and I had jobs after school since the age of ten that continued until I was twenty years old.  This had taught me about the value of effort, and of money.  Then, when at university, I studied economics and accounting.  Later, I worked with Arthur Andresen& Co as a corporate auditor of a variety of clients, in terms of size and industry type, in all components of their business.  Next, I was with IBM, where I held technical, sales, marketing, management and executive positions.


I also worked as a high-level management consultant.  In doing so, I provided a wide range of private clients with strategic and operational advice in accounting, finance, board reporting, organisational and business development, as well as marketing and computing.  The common factor was the need for chief executives, and boards, to find a quick and practical answer to a pressing business issue.  Clients included the chartered accounting firm of Touche Ross & Co., Greenpeace, The Wilderness Society, as well as Federal Government agencies in Australia and commercial businesses.  During this time, by chance, I became State President of the Economic Society of Australia and that was when I entered the city of academia.  I was asked to teach at the University Adelaide, and as I travelled the streets of this new city, I also lectured at Monash University.  There, I focussed on postgraduate international economics, business and management subjects.  After that, I was fortunate to work in pivotal, executive roles at two universities.  One was Shinawatra International University in Thailand, being traditional, with face-to-face teaching, and the other was Universitas 21 Global in Singapore, a premium business school that was entirely online.



The first day was Saturday, June 14th and the first of our papers was delivered by Nancy Huyen Nguyen, who discussed “Thai Workforce- Ready for ASEAN Economic Community 2015?”


ASEAN countries are moving briskly towards the launch of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. Together with monetary and technological resources, human resources are also vital for ASEAN countries stay competitive in the single market of AEC. Taking the case of Thailand, this paper evaluates the readiness of the Thai workforce in preparing for the integration.  It brings to light several fundamental issues of the Thai workforce: (1) the quality of labor in Thailand remains moderate; (2) productivity continues to stay behind other ASEAN countries such as Singapore. The failure of the Thai educational system and the workforce skill mismatch are primary attributes to the workforce’s relatively low skill levels and productivity. Based on the empirical analysis, the paper suggests renewing the role of the Thai government in restructuring the national education system as well as cooperating workforce skill planning into the master development plan.

Keywords       workforce, labor, workers, Thailand, ASEAN, ASEAN Economic Community


Next up was Sirirat Ngamsang, who spoke on the subject “China, USA and Thailand: The Impact of International Relationships on a Modern Economy.”


The relationship between China and the USA is becoming one of the most important relationships in the system of international relations and helps define the ways in which international trade and investment take place. Although the two countries are not open rivals as was the case with the USA and Soviet Union during the Cold War, they do have differing visions for the future, which might be summarized as the difference between the Washington Consensus and the Beijing Consensus. This form of competition may be seen in third party countries, where American and Chinese corporations vie for market access and scarce resources. In the case of Thailand, China has historically been of great importance as a powerful neighbour and because so many ethnic Chinese have migrated to Thailand and infused Thai society with a powerful Chinese element. China’s corporations are coming increasingly important in the economy and may be replacing the American influence which increased in importance during the Second Indochinese War. Will, as some fear, the increasing Chinese economic influence also have a political influence that will be contrary to the wishes of the Thai people for greater freedom of expression and desire for creativity? This paper investigates the changing role of China in the Thai economy in the context of historical factors and international relations and draws conclusions from this analysis.

Keywords: Beijing Consensus, China, international relations, Thailand, USA, Washington Consensus

IMG_1179Moving to the second day, Sunday June 15th, the first speaker was Prapti Proudyal, who spoke on the subject “Job Satisfaction among Doctors Working in Hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal.”


Increasing emphasis is being laid by organizations on the psychosocial wellbeing of staff to enhance efficiency of operations. Job satisfaction results from a pleasurable or positive emotional state arising from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences and it is a central part of psychosocial wellbeing. This is particularly true for medical doctors, who are vital providers of medical services in the community. For a high level of healthcare to be delivered, those responsible should be experiencing good job satisfaction since the interpersonal relationships involved are so important. This study explores the job satisfaction of medical doctors working in hospitals in the public and private sector in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. Since this research is exploratory in nature, a qualitative approach was adopted and involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. A purposive sampling method was adopted so as to include doctors in a diverse range of specialisations, years of experience and position within the hospital. It was found that the primary source of satisfaction for all doctors is appreciation from patients and community as a whole. They are also satisfied that they are doing something noble for humanity. Dissatisfaction was overwhelmingly financial, relationship with administration and workload in the absence of supervision. Senior doctors seem to be very satisfied with all aspects of the job. Dissatisfaction is mainly found in residents and medical officers. However, none of the doctors showed even a hint that they considered quitting the medical profession completely.

Keywords: hospital, job satisfaction, Kathmandu, psychosocial wellbeing



Next up was MBA student Aye Aye Htun, who spoke on the subject “A Study of the Business Network Internationalization Process Model in Myanmar: Literature Review.”

Abstract: The business network internationalization process model is a development of the interaction and network approach that emerged from the Uppsala school in the late 1970s and which helped revolutionize the understanding of marketing. Until the network approach, marketing decisions were assumed to be based on the rationality of microeconomics, perhaps supplemented by the addition of transaction cost analysis. Since then, the role of inter-personal and inter-organizational relationships has been incorporated into frameworks and this has permitted the creation of much more sophisticated and meaningful models of the relationships within networks of market actors. However, this approach was developed in the context of advanced western European economies and the firms who prosper within them. It is far from certain that it will be suitable for application in an emerging economy such as that of Myanmar, where there is a significant lack not just of physical infrastructure and connectivity but also a legal system to support commercial activities and relevant support services such as translation and legal advice, marketing, advertising, design and packaging services. This paper consists of a literature review that has been prepared for a research project to investigate the issues outlined above.


Then we had Reema Thakur, who spoke on the subject “Changing Work and Life Aspirations among Nepalese Women: A Hofstedian Approach.”


Nepal is a developing country in which women continue to face discrimination on a number of fronts. This includes unequal treatment with respect to access to food, healthcare, education, employment, control of the means of production and decision-making ability. The majority of Nepalese people still hold misconceptions about the potential that women have in the economic, political and social spheres, as exemplified by the commonly used proverb that a son brightens the world, while a daughter brightens the kitchen. However, societies change as a result of the processes of globalization and the intensification of capitalism and Nepal is no exception to this. Women have new aspirations and expectations of their work and their personal lives as opportunities emerge and social relations may be renegotiated. This paper reports on personal interviews with a sample of Nepalese women in a diverse range of personal circumstances. To provide a framework of analysis for the interviews, the Hofstedian approach to the exploration of cultures has been employed. By examining the findings against the background of the dimensions of masculinity, power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance and long-term commitment, it is possible to discern the causes and effects of change in Nepalese society and, in particular, gender relations.

Keywords: gender relations, globalization, Hofstede, Nepal

I also delivered some papers myself, two on behalf of presenters who were unable to attend and one on my own behalf.

Deep-Fried Locusts and Stinky Tofu: Performing and Consuming Street Food in Thailand and Taiwan

Abstract: One of the principal attractions for tourists to East Asian cities is the colourful and exotic street food to be found, often in profusion. Some examples of these common snacks have become internationalized and recreated in the upmarket restaurants of the world. Others, however, remain stubbornly unloved by anyone apart from their long-term and traditional adherents. In recent years, street food has been transformed by the spread of fast-food outlets that seem to have opened in nearly every street of every large city of the region. Western foods, powerfully marketed and configured to be addictive in taste and increasingly available through convenience store chains, represent a significant threat to street food providers. In response, providers have sought to introduce new varieties in their product offerings and, in some cases, injected new theatrical elements into their performances of production and consumption. This paper introduces case studies of different locations in Thailand and Taiwan that are known for their street food and examines them in terms of which larger societal and economic changes are reflected at the level of the streets and draws conclusions from those studies.

Key words (3-5 words): street food, performance, consumption, Taiwan, Thailand

Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta and John Walsh

Eco Industrial Estates in Thailand in International Comparative Perspective

Abstract: Eco-industrial estates are geographical territories bounded in time and space in which variations of the national legal system exist so as to promote investment in manufacturing facilities while also considering the possibility of negative environmental externalities. An eco-industrial estate aspires to be sustainable – that is, maximizing current production without sacrificing future prospects. However, there are many steps to be taken before it is possible to move from industrial estates today to those of the future where that sustainability can actually be achieved, no matter how attractive that prospect might appear. This paper examines the moves towards building genuine eco-industrial estates in Thailand and compares this situation with similar attempts that have been made elsewhere in the world. A model is proposed to act as a framework for analysis in this context and that model is then tested by using the data currently available. Conclusions and recommendations are drawn from this analysis.

Keywords: eco-industrial estates, sustainability, Thailand

Supaporn Pinyochatchinda and John Walsh

Cross-Border Connectivities Linking Thailand and Cambodia


The Asian Development Bank has identified connectivity as one of the principal means of promoting economic development in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Connectivity is usually defined in terms of physical infrastructure, in part because this is comparatively easy to quantify and, hence, measure progress. However, connectivity also includes a number of other dimensions, relating to soft infrastructure, inter- and intra-organizational links, virtual connections, personal connections and others. Each of these forms of connectivity produces both positive and negative externalities in the places where they are conducted and further afield. This is evident in the case of Thailand and Cambodia, where the border region has provided opportunities for international cooperation in terms of agricultural production, increased the demand for land and changed the nature of housing and retailing and, also, acted as a destination for migrant workers. Every border region, in the GMS and elsewhere, has different forms of development as a result of geographical, historical, cultural and economic factors and these all have impacts on the type of connectivity that is possible and that which is favoured as a result. This paper explores the different parts of the Thai-Cambodian border with a view to examining the various types of connectivity that might be found there and, from a principally economic perspective, evaluates their nature and importance. Despite political difficulties and the persistent problem of extreme nationalism, it is evident that economic value has been added, particularly around areas such as Aranyaprathet and Sa Kaeo province in general, where development and change have been rapid. The siting of carefully-planned special economic zones in this region might help to improve the current conditions, as well as increasing connectivity and this possibility is also explored with respect to the industrial policies being pursued in both Thailand and Cambodia.

John Walsh