Livestock Management and Gendered Decision-Making in Rural Cambodia


Announcing: Walsh, John, “Livestock Management and Gendered Decision-Making in Rural Cambodia,” Journal of Social and Development Sciences, Vol.6, No.4 (December, 2015), pp.82-91, available at:


Agricultural households tend, around the world, to have gendered divisions of work depending on a range of historical, practical, cultural and geographic factors. Once the issue of who does what in the household is determined, it tends to remain that way and this means it is difficult to introduce development-positive changes in the household in the absence of a moment of change. This paper investigates whether there are opportunities for such change in the case of livestock management in Cambodia. A total of 200 interviews were conducted in four rural areas of Cambodia using a specially designed questionnaire. The extent and spread of livestock ownership was investigated together with the issue of who in the household takes responsibility for different aspects of that management. It is found that there is some limited scope for introducing change in households through changing the opportunities for livestock agriculture in Cambodia. Keywords: Agriculture, Cambodia, development, gendered division of labor, livestock

Gendered Decision-Making and Division of Labour in Cambodia and Thailand


My paper “Gendered Decision-Making and Division of Labour in Cambodia and Thailand” is now listed as a forthcoming article at the International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (here, scroll down a bit).

Abstract: Although agricultural households operate on the basis of the gendered division of labour, it is not clear whether a similar division of labour occurs with respect to decision-making when it comes to agricultural activities. This paper reports on three empirical studies conducted in Cambodia and Thailand with a total sample size of 520 respondents. The sample consists entirely of women, many of whom were heads of households The surveys discovered information about gender and decision-making in terms of new inputs into production (e.g. insecticides and fertilizers) and in livestock management. It was observed that different decision-making processes were followed when a woman was head of the household rather than a man and factors contributing to this result are explained. Implications and recommendations are discussed, along with the necessary limitations to the research in terms of time and space.
Keywords: agriculture, Cambodia, decision-making, rice-growing, Thailand


Mobile Telecommunications in Cambodia: Aspects of Competition and Consumer Behaviour


Announcing: Amponsitra, Fuangfa and John Walsh, “Mobile Telecommunications in Cambodia: Aspects of Competition and Consumer Behaviour,” Pacific Business Review, Vol.7, No.4 (October, 2014), pp.103-, available at:

Abstract: Once Cambodia opened its economy for international investment and businness, many companies entered promising sectors as competition flourished and, in some cases, became destructively intense. This has occurred in the mobile telecommunications industry, which the Cambodian government opened freely to international investors because it realized the importance to economic development of national broadband infrastructure but lacked the resources to build it. This paper explores the interaction between the services provided under these conditions of competition and those which are demanded by consumers through a quantitative survey of 400 respondents in four different urban environments. It is shown that there is a discrepancy between the cost-based offerings generally available and the network externality benefits in which consumers are most interested.

Review of Giteau’s History of Angkor



One of the problems involved in try to get to grips with Cambodian history is the lack of straightforward accounts of what we know about what happened, where and when. This is at least partly because the principal source of information is in the form of inscriptions on stones written in a language that few people can understand. Inscriptions are not always written with a view to expressing clearly the kind of information that would be useful to a contemporary audience but, instead, involves the kind of religious material that once was considered incredibly important.

Read the full review here.

Perspectives of Investors and Consumers on Cambodia’s Telecommunications Industry and Infrastructure


Paper to be presented at the 4th ICGBE at the First hotel, Bangkok this weekend (Feb 1st and 2nd):

Perspectives of Investors and Consumers on Cambodia’s Telecommunications Industry and Infrastructure


This paper investigates the perspectives of foreign investors and domestic users of Cambodia’s mobile telecommunications industry. At the time of research in 2012, there were 12 active players in the mobile telecommunications market. Competition in the sector was intense and highly visible. Personal interviews were conducted with senior managers and executives of these companies with a view to determining their opinions about business development and future prospects for the industry. It was found that revenues and profits were considered to be the most important indicators of business performance, while the relatively open policies the country has concerning foreign direct investment (FDI) means that investment decisions are quite easily made. In addition, 400 questionnaires were completed by users of different mobile telecommunications services in Cambodia, with samples drawn from the capital city Phnom Penh and the important provinces of Siem Reap, Battambang and Sihanoukville. This survey aimed to discover consumer behaviour with respect to mobile phone use and influences upon it. It was discovered that users considered area of coverage to be the most important factor, followed by charges and connectivity.

Fuangfa  Amponstira, PhD Candidate, School of Management, Shinawatra University, Thailand

John Walsh, School of Management, Shinawatra University, Thailand

Book Version of the Gender and Livestock Management Keynote Address


The book version of the keynote address at the 3rd International Marketing Conference at the Institute of Management Studies, Noida:

Walsh, John, “Gender, Decision-Making and Livestock Management in a Sample of Farming Households in Cambodia,” in P.K. Agarwal, Ritu Sharma and Surabhi Singh, eds., Creating Sustainable Business through Innovative Marketing (Wisdom Publications: Delhi, 2013), pp.21-38.

I was very pleased to see that the submitted papers for this event had already been included in a published book – the Indian publishing industry is a wonder to behold.

The text is the same as for the previous post.

Gender, Decision-Making and Livestock Management in a Sample of Farming Households in Cambodia



Announcing: Walsh, John, “Gender, Decision-Making and Livestock Management in a Sample of Farming Households in Cambodia,” paper presented at the 3rd International Marketing Conference: Creating Sustainable Business through Innovative Marketing (Institute of Management Studies: Noida, December 6th-7th, 2013).


This paper explores the interactions between gender, decision-making ability and livestock management in a sample of 200 households in two provinces of Cambodia. To determine the role of women in decision-making, woman only were interviewed and, where possible, women who were heads of the household. It was found that chickens and cattle were the most important form of livestock, being kept by a majority of respondents, and that women had a definite and important role in caring for the livestock and for deciding how they are managed. This has clear implications for marketing practice in rural areas as it is clear that it will be necessary for sales and distribution agents need to obtain specific local knowledge of geographical and climatic conditions, as well as their impacts on agricultural practices. Since these conditions are likely to be long-standing in nature, it is apparent that the role of women in household production (and hence consumption) is significant and must be central in the formation of the marketing mix if sustainable competitive advantage is to be achieved.