SIU Journal of Management, Vol.6, No.2 (December, 2016)

Volume 6, Number 2, December, 2016

Download the full issue 6-2-full.


Editor’s Introduction 4 (6-2-editor)

1. The Future of the Ready-Made Garment Industry of Bangladesh – Mohammed S. Chowdhury, Zahurul Alam and Mohammed Mizanur Rahman (6-2-chowdhury)  7

2. Effectiveness of Collective Bargaining as a Tool for Industrial Disputes Resolution – Obadara, Olabanji E. (6-2-obadara)  34

3. Public Private Partnerships: a Study on the Power Sector of Bangladesh – Suman Dey, Md. Sahidur Rahman and Mouri Dey (6-2-dey)  53

4. An Empirical Study of Corporate Governance and Banks’ Performance in Vietnamese Commercial Banks – Nguyen Thi Hoai Thu, Pham Manh Hung and Thi Lan Anh (6-2-thu) 87

9th International Conference on Management, Finance and Entrepreneurship and the 8th International Conference on Global Business Environment, Shinawatra International University, Graduate Campus, Bangkok, July 23rd, 2016  (6-2-ifrd)  116

International Case Management Conference, 2016, BIMTECH, Greater Noida, India, December 1st-2nd, 2016 (6-2-icmc)  120

Food Insecurity Experience Workshop with Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) (6-2-fies)  124

1. Piketty, Thomas, The Economics of Inequality – by John Walsh (6-2-piketty) 127
2. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Transformative Industrial Policy for Africa – by John Walsh  (6-2-uneca)  130
3. Heidegger, Martin, Nature History State 1933-1934 – by John Walsh (6-2-heidegger) 135

CALL FOR PAPERS                                    (6-2-cfp)            140
AUTHOR’S GUIDELINES                         (6-2-author)     142
ABOUT SHINAWATRA UNIVERSITY    (6-2-about)       145
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD              (6-2-eab)           147

Myanmar’s Mothers at a Time of Structural Change


Win, Sandi and John Walsh, “Myanmar’s Mothers at a Time of Structural Change,” paper presented at Myanmar Update 2017 (Australian National University, Canberra, February 16th-18th, 2017).


The intersectionalities of Myanmar’s patriarchic system have represented significant challenges to the country’s women, particularly its mothers. The confluence of class, ethnicity and patronage networks contains within itself the numerous barriers to women working outside the house, particularly after marriage. This manifests itself is social mores as well as practical issues relating to the ability to balance childcare with outside activities. This situation is now changing because of the relative opening of the state to democracy and the forces of globalization. In Mandalay, capital of the Northern Division of the country and centre of agricultural production, globalization is represented by the physical infrastructure of the road linking the city to Thailand, India and China, the dry dock and special economic zone, the spread of capitalism to more sectors of society and the opportunities to consume international products through newly-opened retail spaces such as in Ocean Plaza, as well as the access to information from mobile internet access cross-border television shows. These changes are affecting the decisions women can make about their lives and the expectations placed upon them to be not just wives, mothers and daughters but, also, modern consumers and producers in a developed capitalist society. This paper reports on qualitative research conducted with a diverse range of mothers in Mandalay through in-depth personal interviews. A semi-structured research instrument is used to encourage the respondents to discuss issues related to work-life balance, aspirations, life chances and relationships with other people, including family members, institutions and the market. The findings are presented within a framework that combine practical, cognitive and spiritual elements.

Keywords: gender, modernity, mothers, Myanmar, work-life balance

The Role of E-Commerce in Enabling Mekong Region Subsistence Farmers to Enter Regional and International Markets Equitably


I am back now from the 1st ERIA Research Workshop on E-Commerce held in Kuala Lumpur. It was successful, I think and the second (at which we are to present draft final papers) will be in July here in Bangkok.

The abstract for my paper is as follows:

There are still large numbers of subsistence farmers in the Greater Mekong Subregion who live in or close to poverty. A recent four-country survey found that nearly half of all people interviewed has some form of food insecurity experience over the past year and these results were higher for people in rural areas (Hapfel & Walsh, forthcoming). Problems from which such households suffer include lack of capital and education, poor access to specific inputs and technical knowledge and no awareness of how to obtain market access. When farmers do enter into contracts for cash-crop production, they face problems such as lack of effective contract law, contracts in verbal not written forms and the propensity of either side to the contract to change conditions in response to short-term price changes. In any case, farmers suffer from the need to trade commodities in volatile markets, the lack of local market development that would make product diversification less risky and inability to convert commodities into value-added products in the context of a region vulnerable to environmental shock and the emerging effects of global climate change. While farmers’ fortunes have been transformed in Thailand, this was at least partly the result of an active, interventionist private sector and extensive transportation and distribution infrastructure that do not exist to anything like the same extent in other Mekong region countries. However, what people in rural areas do now have in great numbers is access to the internet through relatively cheap mobile telecommunications. The penetration of mobile telephones in every country has now become very high and, while freedom of speech with respect to political issues is still restricted, this rarely has an impact on commercial relationships and networks. At the very least, this technology permits people to exchange knowledge about market prices and demand conditions for various products. However, the technology does not permit communications with people speaking a different language nor suggest how to find new market contacts, especially when they are cross-border in nature. There is a need, therefore, to try to understand what mechanisms need to come into existence in order to promote the kinds of remote linkages required to help bring farmers into market relationships on a more or less equitable basis. Is it necessary to introduce either new laws or regulations to ensure e-commerce takes place in a desirable manner or else to change the way that existing laws or regulations are policed? This paper identifies the current conditions under which farmers in the Mekong region currently exist and analyses their ability to access both mobile telecommunications in itself and the network benefits that may flow from it. It also outlines what legal and regulatory frameworks exist and how they may need to be modified to promote equitable market development. The analysis leads to a discussion of what might be achieved through e-commerce in this context and provides recommendations for stakeholders at a variety of levels.

Keywords: agriculture, e-commerce, equitable development, Greater Mekong Subregion, markets

Cross-Border Mobility of Buddhist Monks and Laity in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region


Yesterday I attended the second day of the International Conference “Trans-Asian Mobilities and Encounters: Exchange, Commodification and Sustainability” at Chulalongkorn University here in Bangkok. I presented this paper:

Putthithanasombat, Phramaha Min, Petcharat Lovichakorntikul and John Walsh, “Cross-Border Mobility of Buddhist Monks and Laity in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region,” paper presented at Trans-Asian Mobilities and Encounters: Exchange, Commodification and Sustainability (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Jan 23rd-24th, 2017).


Warfare and privations of various sorts in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have taken a toll on the capacity of Buddhist monks and their supporters to provide sufficient spiritual assistance to the laity. One response to this has been to increase the mobility of monks across borders to add technical capacity to communities lacking it. This occurs in addition to and sometimes complementary to international religious pilgrimages in the GMS that have been facilitated by improvements in transportation infrastructure. When, where and how do such forms of travel take place and what are their effects? This paper uses an ethnographic approach to understanding the nature of monk and laity mobility in the research area and the issues arising from it. Monks and indeed spiritually aware laity must behave in an entirely ethical manner but, it is shown, they still have some scope to compromise with the constraints placed upon them according to the concept of everyday political behaviour – that is, choosing how to comply with restrictions in ways which are conversant with spiritual and practical goals. Their movements transform space temporarily into sacred space and they generate good karma which is distributed among followers. Around these activities, space can become commercial space as followers need to buy items and donate money to practice their beliefs.

Keywords: Greater Mekong Sub-Region, laity, monkhood, Theravadin Buddhism, travel

The Main Causes of the Intentions of Employee Turnover in Mandalay


Tha, Zudith and John Walsh, “The Main Causes of the Intentions of Employee Turnover in Mandalay,” Recent Issues in Human Resource Management, Vol.1, No.1 (December, 2016), pp.112-41, available at:


Purpose – The purpose of this study is to know the main causes of employees’ turnover intention in Mandalay based local industries and develop better HRM strategies. Nowadays, as our country is developing quickly, more businesses both local businesses and foreign businesses are being opened and the competition get higher and higher. So, to compete among strong businesses, we not only need very good business strategies but also need very good Human Resources Management (HRM) strategies. When we concern or learn about good strategies, whether business strategies or HRM strategies, we cannot keep or practice the same strategies everywhere and anytime because their effectiveness can be different depending on different geographies, cultures, and social influences and so on. So, we need different strategies depending on many different factors. On the other hand, to develop a strategy, we need clear data to analyze and to help us develop the needed strategies. That’s the reasons; this study wants to know the main causes of employees’ turnover intention in Mandalay perspective and want to know how to reduce them.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper investigated the impact of organizational commitment and perceived organizational support on the turnover intention of employees of industries in Mandalay. Interview data are collected from the simple size of 35 people. Most of the interviews are employees who are lower levels in organizations. The interviews are more about what the main reasons that cause turnover intention are and why the employees have left their jobs and why do they choose their new jobs and what kind of job they prefer. Moreover, Mell Mobile application is also used to collect some votes relating to employees’ turnover intention. In Mell Mobile application, the questions: “What is your main current difficulty in your workplace? What kind of job will you choose if you find a new job? What made you quit your job in your previous job” are asked and 30 to 50 people have voted in each question? In Mell Mobile application, all the votes’ results are shown with percentage automatically. In each question, the voters have three alternative answers to choose. For the first The qualitative data analysis is done. The result of this study finds out what are the main reasons that cause employee turnover intention and what can make the employees happy in their work and loyal to their jobs in Mandalay based industries.

Findings – The study showed that the main causes of employees’ turnover intention in Mandalay based industries are Relationship and conflicts, long working hours, low salary, the differences of employees’ interests and their jobs, mismatch skills, weak leadership.

Research limitations – The main limitation is the sample size used and the second is most of the interviewees are low levels of the employees and who have got about 1-3 years’ work experience.

Key Words: Employees, Pillar, Turnover Intention, Organization, Mandalay Perspective.

Work Life Balance of Women in Mandalay, Myanmar


Tin, Ingyin Khaing and John Walsh, “Work Life Balance of Women in Mandalay, Myanmar,” Recent Issues in Human Resource Management, Vol.1, No.1 (December, 2016), pp.98-111, available at:,%20Myanmar.pdf.


Myanmar emerged from five decades of isolation- both economically and politically. Myanmar could become one of the next rising stars in Asia if it successfully leverages the natural resources, labor force and geographic advantage. The rapid growth of economic gave rise to tremendously increase the entry of women to labor-market of Myanmar. As the women take on the role of working in addition to their traditional role of the homemaker, they are under great pressure to balance their work and personal lives. This study attempts to understand how work and family related factors influence the workfamily balance of female employees Myanmar. The study is based on an exploratory qualitative study of 30 women in both professional and non-professional in both public and private sectors. The result the research provided that their perceptions on engagement of work, pressure according to the nature of job, multi-role responsibilities, roles conflicts and attempts to negotiate, acceptance of the family superiority culture, the organizational culture and chance of career development provided the positive effect to the employees retention, the main theme of traditional norm do not change that wife should be fully responsible for family. Key words work, Family, Multi-role Responsibilities, Traditional Norms.

Factors Affecting Employees’ Performance in Mandalay Hotel Industry


Swe, Theint Theint and John Walsh, “Factors Affecting Employees’ Performance in Mandalay Hotel Industry,” Recent Issues in Human Resource Management, Vol.1, No.1 (December, 2016), pp.26-61, available at:


The main objective of this research is to study the relationship between recognition, teamwork, work environment, career opportunities and employee performance in the hotel industry. There are 85 sets of questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the targeted respondents who are working in the hotel industry of the Mandalay area. After that, the PSPP software was used to examine those data which were collected and also to generate the final result. The result shows that, there are significant correlations between employee performance with the other four independent variables (Recognition, Teamwork, Work Environment, and Career Opportunities). The major findings, limitations for the study, implications of the study and recommendations of this study will be discussed.

Key words: Employee Performance Hotel Mandalay

Determinants of Selected Compensation Management on Employees’ Satisfaction of Heavy Machinery Companies in Mandalay


Maung, Wah Wah and John Walsh, “Determinants of Selected Compensation Management on Employees’ Satisfaction of Heavy Machinery Companies in Mandalay,” Recent Issues in Human Resource Management, Vol.1, No.1 (December, 2016), pp.1-25, available at:


The main objective of this research is to study the relationship between compensation management and employee satisfaction in the heavy machinery companies. There are 95 sets of questionnaires were prepared and distributed to the targeted respondents who are working in the heavy machinery companies of the Mandalay. Human resources are the pivot of organizational effectiveness and the greatest asset that an organization can possess. The retention of skillful and well equipped workforce in an organization is pertinent to the growth and overall performance of an organization. The satisfied employees’ surely contribute to the organization to achieve its competitive advantage over its competitors. After that, the PSPP software was used to examine those data which were collected and also to generate the final result. The result shows that, there are significant correlations between employee satisfaction with the other four independent variables (basic salary, incentives, leave system, and promotion opportunities). The major findings, limitations for the study, implications of the study and recommendations of this study will be discussed. Keywords: Compensation, Employee Job Satisfaction