Creative Industries and Industrial Policy in Korea and Southeast Asia

The paper I gave at the Bangkok University conference on creative arts policy has now been published in the proceedings online:

Walsh, John, “Creative Industries and Industrial Policy in Korea and Southeast Asia,” paper presented at the Bangkok University Communication Arts (BUCA) Creative Industries in Asia: Innovating within Constraints (Bangkok: July, 2016), available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Stephen_Poon3/publication/307331561_The_Functions_Behind_Hand-Drawn_Typography_In_Human_Gestural_Replication/links/57c5062f08aeb0491435839e/The-Functions-Behind-Hand-Drawn-Typography-In-Human-Gestural-Replication.pdf.

Abstract:

One of the most important means by which the Republic of Korea (ROK) was able to escape
from the Middle Income Trap was through the creation and implementation of the Hallyu,
which was a wave of inter-related forms of cultural production supported and promoted by
government. Hallyu was successful, at least in part, because of the freedom of expression
won by the Korean people in the struggle for democracy. Its various forms, including popular
music, television, dance, food, cosmetics and other consumer goods can be complementary in
nature and were supported by various incentives, subsidies and other forms of industrial
policy. Some of these policies have been recreated for application in other countries of East
and Southeast Asia, while others have yet to be evaluated or adopted. In other cases, policies
have been employed which have actively constrained creativity, sometimes for justifiable
state-level reasons and sometimes not. This paper outlines the different forms of industrial
policy that have been employed to affect creative industries, inspired by the Korean example
and using Southeast Asia as the primary area of investigation. Implications are drawn from
the analysis as to which kinds of policies are likely to be successful in which kinds of policy
regimes and political systems. Social, cultural and religious constraints to the expression of
the creative industries in the region are also discussed and possibilities of change considered.
Keywords: creative industries, hallyu, industrial policy, Korea, Southeast Asia

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Creative Industries and Industrial Policy in Korea and Southeast Asia

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This is the paper that I will present at the Bangkok University Communication Arts International Conference Creative Industries in Asia: Innovating Within Constraints 1-2 July 2016, Bangkok, Thailand. More details here.

Creative Industries and Industrial Policy in Korea and Southeast Asia

Abstract

One of the most important means by which the Republic of Korea (ROK) was able to escape from the Middle Income Trap was through the creation and implementation of the Hallyu, which was a wave of inter-related forms of cultural production supported and promoted by government. Hallyu was successful, at least in part, because of the freedom of expression won by the Korean people in the struggle for democracy. Its various forms, including popular music, television, dance, food, cosmetics and other consumer goods can be complementary in nature and were supported by various incentives, subsidies and other forms of industrial policy. Some of these policies have been recreated for application in other countries of East and Southeast Asia, while others have yet to be evaluated or adopted. In other cases, policies have been employed which have actively constrained creativity, sometimes for justifiable state-level reasons and sometimes not. This paper outlines the different forms of industrial policy that have been employed to affect creative industries, inspired by the Korean example and using Southeast Asia as the primary area of investigation. Implications are drawn from the analysis as to which kinds of policies are likely to be successful in which kinds of policy regimes and political systems. Social, cultural and religious constraints to the expression of the creative industries in the region are also discussed and possibilities of change considered.

Keywords: creative industries, hallyu, industrial policy, Korea, Southeast Asia

3rd International Conference on Skill Development and Technological Innovation for Economic Growth

I have just attended the 3rd International Conference on Skill Development and Technological Innovation for Economic Growth organized by the Institute for Management Studies, Ghaziabad. I was the chief guest and gave an address in the opening session on connections between India and ASEAN. My conference paper was:

Special Economic Zones and Industrial Policy in Thailand

Abstract

Whether under military or democratic rule, successive governments in Thailand have consistently used industrial policy to try to improve economic performance and enhance economic development. Previously, industrial estates were used as an aspect of entering and then passing through the Factory Asia paradigm. However, as Thailand now seeks to exit the Middle Income Trap, industrial estates are to be supplemented by special economic zones (SEZs), which are to be located in border provinces to take advantage of cross-border complementarities with neighbouring Myanmar, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Malaysia. Industrial policy, which remains a controversial subject, involves a range of different activities and requires appropriate coordination and evaluation of results. In the Thai context, this has involved a number of different ministries and other government agencies and there have been some overlaps of responsibility and inefficiencies caused as a result. This paper explores the historical experience of industrial policy in Thailand with a view to analyzing the role of SEZs within current and future policy. The incoherent policy platform currently being promulgated will be considered and recommendations made for a more rational set of policies and means of governance for the future.

Keywords: industrial estates, industrial policy, middle income trap, special economic zones, Thailand

Map Ta Phut as an Exemplar of the Industrial Estates of Thailand

Announcing:

Pinyochatchinda, Supaporn and John Walsh, “Map Ta Phut as an Exemplar of the Industrial Estates of Thailand,” paper presented at the 4th International Colloquium on Business and Management (Bangkok: January, 2011).

Abstract:

The industrial estate has played an important part in the post-WWII economic development of Thailand, representing a focal point for the inward investment necessary to promote the version of the East Asian Economic Model employed in the country. Industrial estates have also been influential in shaping internal labour migration and in determining which economic activities provide competitive advantage in export sectors. The presence of the estates has not, however, been entirely positive since migration is often associated with social issues, because of excessive industrial pollution and because they made profitable otherwise unprofitable and undesirable activities. One of the largest and most significant industrial estates is that of Map Ta Phut, which is located on the eastern seaboard of Thailand. This estate has become particularly strongly linked with the presence of industrial pollution and with the protests of local residents who claim their health has been negatively affected by the various factories and facilities involved. This paper adopts Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate as an exemplar of all industrial estates of Thailand and uses it to identify the various characteristics and individualities of the Thai version of this institution. By doing this, lessons are drawn for both business practitioners and policy-makers concerning the regulation of pollution and other administrative activities, together with forward planning for employment and labour market upgrading.