Nithisathian, Kittichok, Lavanchawee Sujarittanonta and John Walsh, “The Thick Black and White Ocean among Buddhist Pilgrimage Tourist Operators in Thailand,” Journal of Social and Development Studies, Vol.7, No.3 (2016), pp.11-19, available at: http://ifrnd.org/journal/index.php/JSDS/1405-1593-1-SM.pdf
The White Ocean strategy proposed by Thai scholar Danai Chanchaochai addresses management based on Buddhist philosophy, and emphasizes the society first before looking to oneself. At the same time, there is also the concept of Black Ocean, or Hòuhēixué (厚黑學) which translates to Thick Black Theory, proposed by Li Zongwu (李宗吾). Theoretically, an understanding of both white and black can lead the businessman to adjust his plans for better performance. Therefore, this research examines both Black and
White concepts in the context of religious tourism, by collecting business data from tour operators that offer pilgrimage packages to Buddhists. It was found that the Buddhist aspect of the religious tour businesses puts “Blackness” profiteering goals in the background by building a “White” image of charity and donations, thus suggesting that the Black and White co-exists and are inseparable, similar to the middle path or yin-yang
balance in nature.
Keywords: White Ocean Strategy, Black Ocean Strategy, religious tour operators