Business information systems are, fundamentally, technological artifacts. No matter how they are constituted, the systems are mediated by some form of machinery which intervenes, therefore, between the real world observed and the decision-making world of the organization. This is, in one sense, uncontroversial since machinery of this sort is so prevalent in the contemporary world but, on the other hand, there is a quite serious problem. All technology is received with ambivalence by workers because of the threat it poses to existing custom and practice in the workplace.
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